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Yet within its own ranks the divisions were not less relevant.
On the one side there were the Barthians in the Lutheran camp calling for the primacy of the lordship of Christ in dealing with questions of justification and justice.
For Holl, "Luther did not appeal to a natural law." Although using terminology akin to natural law arguments, which admittedly causes some confusion, Luther is seen by Holl as a forerunner of Hume, setting apart the fundamental connection between is and ought that sustained the medieval doctrine of the natural law along the lines of Aristotelian entelechy.
If Troeltsch's Luther is a "restored" relic of medieval Catholicism, Holl's is the beacon of modernity.
But if the solution seems so simple, how do we get to what a quarter of a century later was defined by Johannes Heckel as a maze.
For Heckel, "Luther's Doctrine of the Two Kingdoms, as it has been articulated in protestant theology [read: German], is like an ingenuous labyrinth whose creator lost its plan in the middle of the work, so that [one] cannot find the way out."The Design of the Labyrinth  Fifty years of intense debate followed this initial argument.
 And here we can be even more specific and locate the discussions within the German context from the end of the Weimar Republic through the post-World War II reconstruction.
It was almost like trying to get orange juice by squeezing together apples and bananas.
The first is related to Luther's understanding of the relationship between law and gospel.
The gospel is the end of the law in the sense of bringing the power of law to termination.
But the parameters of the debate would remain basically the same and would become, particularly in the 70s, the litmus test for diagnosing a Lutheran's stance on any social issue.
Flanked by the classical Reformed tradition of a "third use of the law," on the one side, and the Roman Catholic natural law tradition on the other, the two kingdoms became the Lutheran identifying badge.