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Factor 4: Industrialization (past burning of coal).
Rogers said: "I was irritated and determined to prove Sue and Joe wrong."However, when he came to examine threads taken in 1978 - luckily from the same section as the 1988 sample - he found cotton in them.
For example, in AD 774–775 there was an increase of 1.2% in the C content of tree rings, which was about 20 times as high as the background rate of variation.[ix] This “spike” was followed by a decline that lasted several years.
The cause of this difference is thought to be a solar flare, as the same signal is found in C in tree rings around the world, including Germany, Russia, the United States, and New Zealand.[x] Other researchers have noted similar findings.[xi] Do we know whether other solar flares like this occurred thousands of years ago? Heavy or light carbon atoms can become trapped, or at least concentrated, in “carbon reservoirs” where carbon isotopes do not quickly mix with the atmosphere.[xii] As a result, some modern deep ocean organics show a carbon age of 1,500 carbon years, for example.
Radio carbon dating carried out in 1988 was performed on an area of the relic that was repaired in the 16th century, according to Ray Rogers, who helped lead the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STRP).
He came to his conclusion after re-examining a theory from two amateur scientists that he had earlier dismissed as being from "the lunatic fringe".