Dating hermit

The equid fossil was identified as coming from Equus ovodovi (Ovodov horse), an extinct species first described based on a 40,000 year old fossil taken from Proskuryakova Cave in Khakassia, Russia.The mt DNA of the Denisova sample shows close affinity for that taken from Proskuryakova Cave.Comparing the entire genome against all archaic hominin genomes on record, Denisova 11 shares the most genetic affinity with Denisova 3, indicating that her Denisovan father is more closely related to Denisova 3 than her mother was to any of the sequenced Neanderthals.Like Denisova 3, this father carries some introgressed Neanderthal DNA from an admixture event far in the past, estimated at more than 300 generations earlier, and similar in sequence to the Altai Neanderthal genome.Remains of 27 species of large and medium-sized mammals have been found, (such as cave hyena, cave lion, etc.) and 39 species of small mammals, as well as remnants of reptiles, 50 bird species and other vertebrates.Pollen in the cave sediments is used for palaeoclimatological research.

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Among the artifacts which had been left about 30,000 to 48,000 years ago (strata 9–11), bones were identified.Sequencing of DNA from soil samples taken from Denisova Cave showed the presence of Neanderthal and Denisovan mt DNA from several samples, as well as the DNA of several animals.Neanderthal mt DNA was present in soil samples from layer 15 of the Main Gallery, a layer associated with Paleolithic artifacts where no Neanderthal fossils have been found.In 2010, a toe bone was discovered in the cave, in layer 11.4 of the East Gallery, and therefore contemporary with the Denisovan finger bone.Preliminary characterization of the bone's mitochondrial DNA suggested it belonged to a Neanderthal, not a Denisovan.

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